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Athletic Footwear and Orthoses in Sports Medicine
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Athletic Footwear and Orthoses in Sports Medicine
von: Matthew B. Werd, E. Leslie Knight
Springer-Verlag, 2010
ISBN: 9780387764160
400 Seiten, Download: 6760 KB
 
Format:  PDF
geeignet für: Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen PC, MAC, Laptop

Typ: B (paralleler Zugriff)

 

 
eBook anfordern
Inhaltsverzeichnis

  Foreword 6  
  Preface 8  
  Acknowledgments 10  
  Contents 12  
  Contributors 16  
  Part I Fundamentals of Athletic Footwear and Orthoses 18  
     1 Evolution of Athletic Footwear 19  
         History of the Running Shoe 19  
            Ancient History 19  
            The Running Shoe Revolution 20  
            Reebok Begins the Race 20  
            The Amazing Dassler Brothers 21  
            Tiger Shoes and ASICS Join the Chase 21  
            New Balance and Intelligent Design 21  
            The Modest Beginnings of the Nike Shoe Empire 22  
            Breakthrough by Brooks 22  
         Key Contributors in Athletic Shoe Development 22  
         Early Research on Athletic Shoes 26  
         Running Shoe Anatomy: Past and Present 27  
            The Upper 28  
               Upper Materials: Past and Present 28  
            The Bottom 29  
               Materials: Past and Present 29  
            Wedges 30  
            Outsole 30  
            Insole and Sockliner 31  
            Putting It All Together 31  
        References 32  
     2 Evolution of Foot Orthoses in Sports 34  
         Definition of Foot Orthoses 34  
         Historical Evolution of Foot Orthoses 35  
         Research and Theory on Orthosis Function 35  
            Research on Therapeutic Effectiveness of Orthoses 36  
            Theories of Foot Orthosis Function 37  
            Research on Biomechanical Effects of Foot Orthoses 43  
               Foot Orthoses Alter Foot and Lower Extremity Kinematics and Kinetics 44  
               Foot Orthoses Alter Contractile Activity of Lower Extremity Muscles 45  
               Foot Orthoses Improve Postural Stability 45  
               Foot Orthoses Reduce Plantar Forces and Pressures 46  
         Conclusion 47  
        References 47  
     3 Athletic Foot Types and Deformities 51  
         Normal Foot Motion and Biomechanics During Gait 51  
            Foot Types 52  
         Functional Foot Disorders 53  
            Examples of Foot Deformities in Athletes 53  
            Lower Extremity Pathology 54  
               Calcaneal Apophysitis 54  
               Kohler's Disease 54  
               Freiberg's Disease 55  
               Heel Spur Syndrome or Plantar Fasciitis 55  
               Sesamoiditis 56  
               Stress Fracture 56  
               Ankle Sprains 56  
               Patellofemoral Dysfunction 58  
               Interdigital Neuroma 58  
               Achilles Tendonitis 58  
               Posterior Tibial Tendonitis 58  
               Hallux Abducto Valgus 58  
               Hammer Toe Deformity 59  
               Tailor's Bunion 59  
            Treatment 60  
           References 60  
     4 Clinical Gait Evaluation of the Athlete 61  
         Technology 62  
            Digital Video Analysis: 3D Analysis 62  
            Digital Video Analysis: 2D Analysis 63  
            Pressure Analysis 63  
         Methodology 64  
            Video Analysis Methodology 65  
            In-Shoe Pressure Methodology 66  
         Conclusion 67  
        References 68  
     5 Athletic Shoe Evaluation 69  
         Anatomy of an Athletic Shoe 69  
            Last 70  
            Toe Box 70  
            Vamp 70  
            Balmoral Versus Blucher 70  
            Outer Sole 70  
            Midsole 71  
            Upper 71  
            Heel Counter 71  
         Function of Athletic Shoes 71  
         Clinical Assessment of Athletic Shoes 73  
            Fit 73  
            Insoles 73  
            Forefoot Flexibility 74  
            Midfoot Sagittal Stability 74  
            Midfoot Frontal Stability 74  
            Lateral Midsole Heel Cushion 75  
            Medial Midsole Heel Density 75  
         Heel Counter 75  
            Outsole Surface Area 76  
         Conclusion 76  
     6 Athletic Shoe Fit and Modifications 77  
         Shoe Fitting 77  
            Size 77  
            Shape 78  
            Stability 78  
            Style 79  
         Athletic Shoe Modifications 80  
            Shoe Stretching 81  
         Conclusion 81  
     7 Athletic Socks 82  
         Historical Background 82  
         Basic Sock Design and Construction 82  
         Fiber Composition 84  
            Moisture Management 84  
            Fibers Used for Athletic Socks 85  
         Clinical Benefits of Athletic Socks 87  
            Impact and Pressure Reduction 87  
            Friction Blisters 88  
            Potential Clinical Benefits 89  
         Conclusion and Recommendations 89  
        References 90  
     8 Athletic Shoe Lacing in Sports Medicine 92  
         Athletic Shoelace Materials 92  
         Athletic Shoelace Shapes 92  
         Athletic Shoelace Lacing Techniques 93  
            Standard Crisscross Lacing Pattern 93  
            Non-crossing, Parallel Lacing Pattern 94  
            Outside-Eyelet, Crisscross Lacing Pattern 95  
            Inside-Eyelet, Crisscross Lacing Pattern 96  
            Distal--Medial Eyelet Lacing Technique 97  
            Heel Lock Lacing Modification 97  
            Open Distal Eyelet Lacing Technique 98  
            Open Eyelet Lacing Technique 98  
         Athletic Shoelace Technology 98  
            Athletic Shoelace Specialized Systems 99  
            Athletic Shoelace Lengths 100  
         Summary 100  
     9 Prefabricated Insoles and Modifications in Sports Medicine 101  
         Definitions 101  
         Benefits of Insoles 102  
         Summary 106  
        References 106  
     10 Orthodigital Devices in Sports Medicine 107  
         Guidelines for Fabrication of an Orthodigital Device 108  
            Step-by-Step Process for Fabricating an Orthodigital Device 108  
         Summary 112  
        References 113  
     11 Evidence-Based Orthotic Therapy 114  
         Evidence for Orthotic Therapy 115  
            Plantar Fasciitis 116  
            Functional Hallux Limitus 118  
            Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome 119  
            Knee Pain 120  
         Summary 120  
        References 121  
     12 Custom Foot Orthoses 123  
         Material and Flexibility 124  
         Correction and Positive Balancing 125  
         Orthosis Extensions and Additions 127  
        References 128  
     13 Ankle Foot Orthoses for the Athlete 129  
         Terminology 129  
         Types of Ankle Braces and Ankle Foot Orthoses 129  
         Treatment Effects of Ankle Braces and Ankle Foot Orthoses 133  
            Studies of Kinetics and Kinematics of Ankle Braces 133  
            Studies of Kinetics and Kinematics of Ankle Foot Orthoses 136  
         Effects of Ankle Bracing on Sports Performance 137  
         Balance and Proprioception 138  
         Prevention of Injury 139  
         Treatment of Injury 140  
         Summary 141  
     14 Prescribing Athletic Footwear and Orthoses: The Game Plan 143  
         The Guidelines for a Customized Footwear Prescription 143  
            Determine the Foot Type 144  
            Determine the Foot's Function During Gait 144  
            Consider Any Foot Pathology 145  
            Consider the Size and Weight of the Athlete 145  
            Consider the Athlete's Demands from the Sport 145  
            Assess Key Features of the Athletic Shoe 146  
            Athletic Shoes 146  
            Athletic Socks 149  
            Athletic Shoe Laces and Lacing Techniques 149  
            Pre-fabricated Athletic Shoe Insoles 149  
            Athletic Shoe Modifications 149  
            Referral for Custom Foot or Ankle Orthoses 149  
            Prescribe Athletic Custom Foot Orthoses and Modifications 150  
            Prescribe Athletic Ankle Foot Orthoses and Modifications 150  
            Follow-Up Re-assessment for Possible Modifications After Wear-Testing 150  
         Summary 150  
  Part II Sport-Specific Recommendations 151  
     15 Walking and Running 152  
         Gait Biomechanics: Walking vs. Running 152  
         Classification of Running Foot Types 153  
            The Neutral Foot 153  
            The Pronated Foot 153  
            The Cavus Foot 153  
         Classification and Selection of a Running Athletic Shoe 153  
            Normal Arch 154  
            Flatfoot Arch 154  
            High Arch 154  
         Types of Running Shoes 155  
            Running Socks 156  
         Custom Running Orthoses 157  
         Injuries That Influence Running Shoe Selection 158  
            Functional Hallux Limitus 158  
            Plantar Fasciitis 158  
            Achilles Tendonitis 158  
            Anterior Shin Splints 159  
            Posterior Shin Splints 159  
            Runner's Knee 159  
        References 159  
     16 Racing, Cross-Country, and Track and Field 160  
         Purpose of Specialized Shoes 160  
         Types of Racing Shoes 161  
            Lightweight Trainer 161  
            Road Racing Flat 161  
            Spike Plate 161  
            Cross-Country 162  
            Track and Field 163  
               Sprints 163  
               Middle and Long Distance 163  
               Jumps 164  
               Throws 165  
         Putting It All Together 165  
            Spikes 166  
            Training 166  
            Skin Issues 167  
            Support 167  
     17 Triathlon and Duathlon 170  
         Overuse Injuries 171  
         The Act of Running: Single Support and Double Float (Swing) 172  
         The Act of Cycling: Spinning Through Power and Recovery Phases 175  
         Biomechanic Role of the Foot 176  
         Anatomy of a Triathletes Running and Cycling Shoes 178  
            The Running Shoe 178  
            The Cycling Shoe 181  
            Classifying Running Shoes 183  
            Finding the Perfect Triathlon Shoe 184  
            Pedal and Cleat Systems 187  
            Socks for the Triathlete 187  
            Foot Orthoses Success 189  
         The Athlete and Overuse Injuries 198  
         The Older-Aged Triathlete 198  
     18 Cycling 201  
         Cycling Biomechanics and Considerations 201  
            The Pedal Cycle 202  
            Pedaling Technique 203  
            Pedaling Forces 204  
         Cycling Injuries and Risk Factors 204  
         Cycling Footwear 205  
            Cycling Shoe Fit 206  
            Cycling Shoe Construction 206  
               Road Cycling Shoe Construction 206  
               Sport Cycling Shoe Construction 209  
               Mountain Biking Shoe Construction 210  
            Cycling Cleats 211  
            Pedals 213  
            Foot Position on the Pedal 214  
            Cycling Insoles 214  
            Cycling Orthoses 215  
            Socks 216  
         Footwear Recommendations and Modifications for Prevention and Treatment of Injury 216  
            Knee Pain 216  
            Iliotibial Band Syndrome 217  
            Limb Length Inequality 217  
            Achilles Tendon and Posterior Heel Pain 218  
            Plantar Fasciitis 218  
            Forefoot Pain and Injuries 218  
         The Future of Cycling Footwear 219  
        References 219  
     19 Racquet Sports: Tennis, Badminton, Squash, Racquetball, and Handball 222  
         Court Design and Surfaces 222  
         Biomechanical Demands of Racquet Sports 223  
         Common Injuries 223  
         Racquet Shoe Design 224  
            Injury Prevention 225  
            Performance 226  
            Comfort 227  
         Desirable Features of A Court Shoe 228  
         Orthoses 228  
         Summary 229  
        References 229  
     20 Football 231  
         Foot Structure as It Relates Specifically to Football 234  
            The Rectus Foot Type 234  
            The Pronated Foot Type 234  
            The Supinated Foot Type 235  
            Footwear Recommendations 237  
         Historical Background 237  
            Cleat Selection 238  
            Materials 238  
            Lacing Techniques 239  
            Ankle Spatting 239  
            Ankle Bracing 239  
            Orthoses 239  
            Sock Selection 240  
         Footwear Recommendations for Common Football Pathologies 240  
            Turf Toe 240  
            Sesamoiditis 240  
            Neuroma 241  
            Metatarsalgia 241  
            Lateral Ankle Sprains 242  
            Syndesmotic Ankle Sprains 242  
        References 242  
     21 Soccer 244  
         Lower Extremity Biomechanics and Considerations of Soccer 244  
         General Footwear Recommendations 245  
            Anatomy of a Soccer Shoe 245  
               Upper Materials 245  
               Outsole Materials 246  
               Molded Shoes 246  
               Detachable Cleats 246  
               Turfs 247  
               Hybrid 247  
               Indoor 248  
               Midsole 248  
               Lacing 248  
            Shin Guards 248  
            Orthoses 248  
         Common Injuries and Preventions 249  
            Apophysitis 249  
            Plantar Fasciitis 249  
            Achilles Tendonitis 250  
            Soccer Toe 250  
            Inversion Injuries 250  
         Conclusion 250  
        References 251  
     22 Skating 252  
         Hockey Skate Boots 252  
            Goalie Skates 254  
            In-Line Skates 255  
            Figure Skates 255  
         Speed Skates 257  
         Biomechanics 257  
         Clinical Injury Perspective 258  
            Clinical Biomechanical Balance 259  
               Step 1: Foot Balance Within Boot-Custom Foot Orthosis 259  
               Step 2: Blade Balance 261  
            Case 1: Moderate Pronation 265  
            Case 2: Moderate--Severe Pronation 266  
            Case 3: Supinated Pes Cavus Foot Type 268  
         Conclusion 269  
        References 270  
     23 Skiing and Snowboarding 272  
         Downhill Skiing 272  
            Tibial Varum 274  
            Tibial Valgum 274  
            Forefoot Varus 275  
         Snowboarding 276  
         Cross-Country Skiing 277  
        References 278  
     24 Basketball and Volleyball 280  
         Custom Foot Orthoses 282  
         Sport-Specific Pathology 283  
            Lateral Ankle Sprain 283  
            Plantar Fasciitis 283  
            Other Injuries 284  
            Jones Fracture 284  
         Summary 284  
        References 285  
     25 Aerobic Dance and Cheerleading 287  
         Aerobic Dance 287  
            Urban Rebounding 290  
            Kickboxing 291  
         Cheerleading 291  
        References 294  
     26 Dance 295  
         Lower Extremity Biomechanics and Considerations in the Evaluation of the Dancer 295  
            The Foot 296  
            The Functional Examination 297  
            The Knee 298  
            The Hip 298  
            General Flexibility and Strength 299  
         What to Look for at the Foot and Ankle 299  
            The Ankle Joint 301  
            The Midtarsal Joint 301  
         Footwear Recommendations and Modifications 302  
            Foot Hygiene 303  
        References 304  
     27 Baseball and Softball 306  
         Lower Extremity Biomechanics and Considerations of Baseball and Softball 306  
         General Footwear Recommendations 307  
            Footwear Modifications 307  
               Pathology Specific (Acute and Chronic) 307  
        References 309  
     28 Special Olympics 310  
        References 321  
  Part III Coding and Billing 322  
     29 Durable Medical Equipment and Coding in Sports Medicine 323  
         Definition 323  
            Durability 324  
            Medical Equipment 324  
            Medically Necessary 324  
            Not Medically Necessary 325  
         Licensure 325  
         Assignment 326  
            Participating Supplier 326  
            Non-participating Supplier 326  
         FEE Schedule 327  
         Communication 328  
         Office Forms/Policies 328  
         Billing Protocols 328  
            NPI Number 329  
            Place of Service 329  
            Obtaining a Denial 329  
            Incorrect or Overpayment 330  
            Modifiers 330  
            Deductibles and Deposits 331  
            Sales Tax 331  
            Dispensing Requirements 331  
               Patient Education 332  
         Replacement Interval 332  
            Inability to Deliver DME 332  
            Specific Items 333  
               Orthoses 333  
               Custom Foot Orthoses 333  
            Biomechanical Examination 334  
            Gait Analysis 334  
         Orthoses HCPCS Codes 334  
            Orthosis Modifications 335  
            E/M Services with Regard to Orthosis Management 335  
            Postoperative/Wooden Shoes/Cast Shoes 336  
               Covered Items 336  
               Non-covered Items 336  
            Strapping 337  
            Casts 337  
         Billing Scenario 337  
            Visit 1 337  
               Sample Billing 338  
            Visit 2 338  
               Sample Billing 338  
            Visit 3 339  
               Sample Billing 339  
            Visit 4 339  
               Sample Billing 339  
            Visit 5 339  
               Sample Billing 340  
            Further Follow-Up 340  
            Visit 6 340  
               Sample Billing 340  
            Visit 7 340  
               Sample Billing 340  
            Visit 8 341  
               Sample Billing 341  
            Visit 9 341  
               Sample Billing 341  
            Visit 10 341  
               Sample Billing 342  
            Visit 11 342  
               Sample Billing 342  
         Conclusion 342  
     Index 343  


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