Hilfe Warenkorb Konto Anmelden
 
 
   Schnellsuche   
     zur Expertensuche                      
Brain Imaging in Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Neuroscience  
Brain Imaging in Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Neuroscience
von: Ronald A. Cohen, Lawrence H. Sweet
Springer-Verlag, 2010
ISBN: 9781441963734
404 Seiten, Download: 12232 KB
 
Format:  PDF
geeignet für: Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's PC, MAC, Laptop

Typ: B (paralleler Zugriff)

 

 
eBook anfordern
Inhaltsverzeichnis

  Brain Imagingin Behavioral Medicineand Clinical Neuroscience 3  
     Foreword 5  
     Preface 7  
     Contents 11  
     Contributors 13  
     Chapter 1: Brain Imaging in Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Neuroscience: An Introduction 17  
        Psychophysiological Perspective 18  
        Vascular Psychophysiology 20  
        Radiological Imaging 20  
        Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging 21  
        Evolution of Functional Brain Imaging as Tool for Neuroscientific Research 22  
        Conceptual and Methodological Considerations 23  
        Brain Imaging in Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Neuroscience 24  
        References 24  
     Chapter 2: Basic MR Physics: Considerations for Behavioral Medicine and Neuropsychology 26  
        Origin of the Nuclear Induction Signal 26  
        Relaxation 28  
        Spatial Encoding 31  
        Image Acquisition Pulse Sequences 36  
        Contrast 40  
        Signal-to-Noise Ratio 43  
        MRI Hardware 45  
           The Magnet 45  
           The Gradient System 46  
           RF Coils 47  
        Safety 50  
        References 51  
     Chapter 3: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging 52  
        Introduction 52  
        Historical Overview 52  
        BOLD FMRI Signal Quantification and Experimental Design 54  
        Strengths and Limitations of BOLD FMRI 55  
        Future Directions 57  
        References 59  
     Chapter 4: Diffusion-Tensor Imaging and Behavioral Medicine* 63  
        Part I: Basic Concepts 63  
           Diffusion in the Brain 63  
           Measuring Diffusion in the Brain 64  
           The Diffusion Tensor 65  
           Considerations for Acquisition of DTI Data 66  
           Utilization of DTI Data 67  
              Scalar Metrics 67  
              Visualizing Scalar DTI Metrics 68  
              Tractography 69  
                 Streamline Methods 70  
                 Probabilistic Tractography 70  
           Quantitative Analysis of DTI Data 70  
              Region of Interest Approach 70  
              Voxel-Based Morphometry 71  
              Quantitative Tractography 71  
              Tract-Based Spatial Statistics 72  
           Imaging Artifacts 72  
              Subject Motion 72  
              Eddy Currents 72  
              Magnetic Susceptibility Artifacts 73  
              Image Noise 73  
        Part II: Clinical Application 73  
           Hypertension 74  
           Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome 74  
           Alcohol Abuse 75  
           Nicotine and Substance Use 75  
           HIV Infection 76  
        Part III: Conclusion 77  
        References 77  
     Chapter 5: Perfusion MRI 81  
        Introduction 81  
        Susceptibility Methods 82  
           Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Methods 82  
           Steady-State Techniques 84  
        Arterial Spin Labeling 84  
           Creation of the Spin Label 85  
              Pulsed ASL 85  
                 Echo-Planar Imaging and Signal Targeting with Alternating Radio Frequency 87  
                 Flow Alternating Inversion Recovery 88  
                 Proximal Inversion with a Control for Off-Resonance Effects 89  
              Continuous ASL 89  
              Velocity-Sensitive ASL 90  
           Methods Used to Control Duration of ASL Tagging 91  
           Absolute Perfusion Quantification with ASL 91  
           Image Readout for Arterial Spin Labeling 92  
              Spin-Echo Vs. Gradient Echo 92  
              Fast Imaging Techniques 92  
              Volumetric Acquisition 93  
              Suppression of Macrovascular Signal 93  
              Background Suppression 93  
              Implications of Magnetic Field Strength 93  
        Conclusion 94  
        References 94  
     Chapter 6: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H MRS): A Practical Guide for the Clinical Neuroscientist 96  
        The Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 96  
        Required Hardware 98  
        Important MRS Terms 98  
           Localization and Volume-of-Interest 98  
           Echo Time 98  
           Shimming 99  
           Water Suppression 99  
           Spin–Lattice (T1) and Spin–Spin (T2) Relaxation Times 99  
           Quantification 100  
        1H MRS Visible Metabolites of Neurobiological Significance 101  
           2.02 ppm: N-Acetyl-Aspartate (NAA) 101  
           3.26 ppm: Choline (Cho), Phosphocholine (PCh), and Glycerophosphocholine (GPC) 101  
           3.03 ppm: Creatine (Cr) and Phosphocreatine (PCr) 101  
           3.56 ppm: Myo-Inositol 101  
           3.44 and 3.8 ppm: Glucose 102  
           2.34 and 2.36 ppm: Glutamate 102  
           Other Chemicals in the 1H MRS Spectrum 103  
           Imaging Other Nuclei 103  
        References 103  
     Chapter 7: Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy 105  
        Introduction 105  
        Principles 105  
        Apparatus 106  
        Comparison with Other Neuroimaging Technologies 107  
        Strengths 108  
        Limitations 109  
        Validation Efforts 109  
        Applications 110  
        Conclusions and Future Implications 111  
        References 111  
     Chapter 8: Methodological Considerations for Using Bold fMRI in the Clinical Neurosciences 114  
        The BOLD fMRI Affect 114  
        Data Acquisition 114  
        The MRI Environment 114  
        Head Motion and Sources of Noise in fMRI Data 115  
        Data Processing and Analyzing the BOLD fMRI Signal 116  
           Data Preparation 116  
           Activation Detection and Statistical Considerations 116  
           Test–Retest Reliability and Reproducibility in fMRI 117  
           The Basis of the BOLD Signal 118  
              Natural Heterogeneity in the Brain 118  
              Effects of Normal Development on the BOLD Signal 118  
              Effects of Injury and Pathology on the BOLD Signal 119  
              Effects of Exogenous Substances/Medication on BOLD 120  
        fMRI Data Interpretation 121  
           An Infinite Number of Explanations for “Activation” 121  
              Tasks that Can Be Performed 121  
              Directly Examine Performance and Activation Relationships 123  
           Clinical fMRI and the Trouble with Subtraction 123  
           Influence of Mood/Affect on Data Interpretation 124  
        Conclusions 124  
        References 124  
     Chapter 9: Application of Functional Neuroimaging to Examination of Nicotine Dependence 128  
        Overview 128  
        Neurobiology of Nicotine Dependence 128  
        Functional Neuroimaging Approaches 129  
           Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging 129  
           Positron Emission Tomography 129  
           Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography 129  
           Electroencephalography, Event-Related Potentials, and Magnetoencephalography 130  
           Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 130  
           Imaging Genomics 130  
           Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Neuroimaging Approaches for Nicotine Dependence Research 131  
        Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Nicotine Dependence 131  
           Cue Exposure Effects and Cognitive, Affective, or Working Memory Tasks 131  
           Nicotine and/or Tobacco Effects 151  
           Abstinence Effects on Task Performance 152  
           Task-Free Approaches 153  
           Imaging Genomic Studies 153  
        Summary and Implications for Advancing the State of the Science of Nicotine Dependence Treatment 153  
        References 154  
     Chapter 10: The Relationship Between Mood, Stress, and Tobacco Smoking 157  
        The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors 157  
        Anatomical Localization 158  
        In Vivo Imaging of the nAChR 158  
        In Vivo Imaging of Monoamine Oxidase 159  
        Nicotine Dependence and Major Depressive Disorder 159  
        nAChRs Are Important Modulators of Serotonin 160  
        Cholinergic Hypothesis of Depression 160  
        The Cholinergic System as a Therapeutic Target in Depression 161  
        Classical Antidepressants Are nAChR Antagonists 161  
        Mood Stabilizers for Bipolar Disorder and the Cholinergic System 162  
        Reduction in Acetylcholine Concentration Has Antidepressant Effect 162  
        Nicotine Dependence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 163  
        Role of Nicotinic Acetylcholinergic System in Cognition and Behavior in PTSD 163  
        Brain and Cognition 163  
        b2-nAChR Availability in PTSD 164  
        Conclusion 165  
        References 165  
     Chapter 11: Imaging Substance Use and Misuse: Psychostimulants 172  
        Introduction 172  
        Public Health Impact 172  
        Methodological Issues 172  
        Overarching Research Questions of Interest 173  
        Acute Drug Effects 173  
        Chronic Drug Effects 174  
        Craving 175  
        Withdrawal 175  
        Relapse 176  
        Between-Person Factors 177  
        Overarching Models of Substance Use and Misuse 180  
        Unanswered Questions and Future Directions: Identifying Vulnerability and Protective Factors 180  
        Developing Effective Treatment Options 182  
        Novel Applications of Real-Time fMRI for Substance Abuse Research and Treatment 182  
        References 183  
     Chapter 12: Eating Disorders 187  
        Overeating 187  
           Sensory Cues 188  
           Consumption of Food 189  
        Binge Eating Disorder 190  
        Bulimia Nervosa 190  
           Structural and Global Functional Deficits 190  
           Abnormal Processing of Food Reward and Taste 191  
           Abnormal Body Image Perception and Response to Food Cues 191  
           Considerations for Future Work 192  
        Anorexia Nervosa 192  
           Structural Abnormalities 192  
           Deficits in Global and Regional Brain Function 193  
           Serotonin and Dopamine Transmission 193  
           Disturbed Relationships to Food 194  
           Abnormal Body Image Perception 194  
           Conclusions and Considerations for Future Work 195  
        References 195  
     Chapter 13: Structural and Functional Neuroimaging in Obesity 200  
        Introduction 200  
        Morphological Brain Alterations 200  
           Computed Tomography 200  
           Magnetic Resonance Imaging 201  
           Diffusion-Weighted Imaging 201  
           Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 201  
           Summary of Morphological Brain Alterations in Obesity 202  
        Functional Brain Alterations 202  
           Functional Imaging of Eating Behavior 202  
           Functional Imaging in Obesity 203  
        Limitations of Current Research 204  
        Future Directions 204  
        Summary and Conclusion 205  
        References 205  
     Chapter 14: Neuropsychology and Neuroimaging in Metabolic Dysfunction 208  
        Metabolic Dysfunction: from Obesity to Insulin Resistance to Insulin Dependence 208  
        Insulin Resistance 209  
        Insulin Resistance and Cognitive Functioning 209  
        Neuropathology and Neuroimaging in Insulin Resistance 210  
        Neuroimaging in Diabetes 212  
        Hypertension and Cognitive Functioning 213  
        Neuroimaging and Hypertension 214  
        Neuropsychology of Obesity 215  
        Obesity and Brain Function 217  
        Conclusion 218  
        References 218  
     Chapter 15: Neuroimaging of Cardiovascular Disease 221  
        Rationale for Neuroimaging in CVD 222  
           Vascular Influences on Neurodegenerative Brain Disease 222  
           Evidence from Studies of VCI 222  
              Pathophysiological Considerations 223  
              Microvascular Disease in AD 223  
              Contribution of Blood–Brain Barrier Dysfunction 223  
              Capillaries and Cerebral Arterioles Disruption in AD 225  
        CVD-Associated Neurocognitive and Brain Dysfunction 225  
           Cognitive Change Over Time in CVD 226  
           Vascular and Metabolic Contributions 226  
           Cerebral Hypoperfusion as a Basis for CVD-Associated Brain Dysfunction 227  
           Systemic Vascular Contributions 228  
              Cardiac Output 228  
              Cerebral Hemodynamic Autoregulatory Failure 228  
              Vascular Burden 228  
              Endothelial Disturbance 229  
              Systemic Vascular Measurement 229  
              Systemic Vascular and Neurocognitive Function 230  
              Cytokines and Inflammatory Processes431,435,436,443 230  
           Summary and Conceptual Model 231  
        Neuroimaging CVD-Associated Brain Dysfunction 231  
           Current Routine Clinical Neuroimaging in CVD 232  
           Structural Brain Abnormalities in CVD 232  
           White Matter Damage Secondary to Microvascular Disease 233  
              Vascular Function and WMH 234  
           Altered Functional Brain Response in CVD (FMRI) 234  
              Identification of 2-Back-Related Networks and ROIs 234  
              Aging, CVD, and BOLD 234  
              BOLD Response Alterations in CVD 235  
              Functional Brain Response is Influenced by Systemic Vascular Factors 236  
              Functional imaging of Risk for Vascular Disease 236  
              Temporal Dynamics of Cortical Recruitment During Working Memory 236  
           Diffusion Imaging in CVD 237  
           Diffusion Tensor Imaging 237  
           Cerebral Perfusion 238  
              Transcranial Doppler Imaging 240  
              Hemodynamic Influences on the BOLD Response 241  
           Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 241  
        Conclusions 243  
        References 243  
     Chapter 16: Exercise and the Brain 262  
        Introduction 262  
        Neural Mechanisms of the Effects of Exercise on Cognition 262  
           Effects of Exercise on Normal Cognitive Functioning 262  
           Neural Mechanisms and Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Functions 264  
           Effects of Exercise in Treating Cognitive and Neurological Pathology 266  
        Neural Mechanisms of the Effects of Exercise on Affect 267  
           Effects of Exercise on Normal Affective Functioning 267  
           Effects of Exercise in Treating Affective Pathology 268  
              Major Depressive Disorder 268  
              Exercise as an Alternative Treatment for MDD 268  
              Effects of Exercise on Neural Structures Implicated in MDD 269  
        The Role of Neural Processes in the Adoption and Maintenance of Exercise Programs 269  
           Exercise, Affect, and Adherence 269  
           Neural Mechanisms of Behavioral Change and Exercise Adherence 270  
        Conclusions and Future Directions 271  
        References 272  
     Chapter 17: Neuroimaging of Pain: A Psychosocial Perspective 279  
        The Neural Correlates of Pain 280  
        Conceptualizing a Structural Anatomy of Nociception and Pain 280  
        Identifying the Functional Anatomy of Nociception and Pain 281  
        Using Experimentally Induced Pain to Image the Pain Matrix 282  
        Psychological Factors and Brain Imaging of Pain 283  
        Pain Catastrophizing 283  
        Anxiety and Depression 284  
        Anticipation of Pain 285  
        Attention and Distraction 286  
        Empathy 287  
        Effects of Psychological Interventions 287  
        Placebo 287  
        Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 289  
        Reconceptualizing Pain 290  
        Hypnosis 290  
        Meditation 291  
        Issues and Future Research Direction 291  
        References 292  
     Chapter 18: Neuroimaging in Acute Ischemic Stroke 297  
        Rationale for Stroke Neuroimaging 298  
        Evolution of Cerebral Infarction (Fig. 18.9) 298  
        Neuroimaging of Stroke 299  
           Noncontrast CT 299  
           CT Perfusion Imaging (Figs. 18.3–18.5) 299  
              CT Angiography (Fig. 18.6) 302  
           MR-Based Methods (Figs. 18.2, 18.7–18.14) 303  
              Diffusion Weighted Imaging 303  
              Magnetic Resonance Angiography (Figs. 18.12 and 18.13) 306  
              MR Perfusion-Weighted Imaging (Fig. 18.15) 306  
              Continuous Arterial Spin Labelling Perfusion MRI 307  
           Stable Xenon CT 307  
           Positron Emission Tomography 307  
           Brain Spect W/ Diamox 308  
        Future Directions 308  
        Appendix 310  
        Neuroimaging Protocols for Acute Stroke: University of Massachusetts Medical Center 310  
           Hyperacute Period 310  
           Acute Stage (3–12 h Postsymptom Onset) 311  
        References 311  
     Chapter 19: Neuroimaging of Alzheimer’s Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Other Dementias 313  
        Introduction 313  
        Background 313  
        Neurobiology & Neuropathology of AD 314  
        Clinical Symptoms of AD 314  
        Imaging and AD 314  
        Structural Imaging in AD and MCI 315  
           Computed Tomography 315  
           Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging 315  
           Other Structural MRI Techniques 318  
              Diffusion Weighted and Diffusion Tensor Imaging 318  
              Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 318  
              Perfusion MRI 319  
              Functional MRI 319  
              Task-Related fMRI 319  
              Functional and Resting-State Connectivity 321  
        Nuclear Medicine Techniques 322  
           SPECT 322  
           Positron Emission Tomography 322  
              Metabolic Measures (FDG-PET) 323  
              Amyloid Imaging 323  
              Neurotransmitter PET 325  
              Neuroinflammation PET 325  
        Imaging of Non-AD Dementias 326  
        Future Directions 326  
           Imaging and Genomics 326  
           Early Diagnosis and Pre-MCI 327  
           Clinical Trials Using Imaging 328  
        Conclusions 328  
        References 329  
     Chapter 20: Application of Neuroimaging Methods to Define Cognitive and Brain Abnormalities Associated with HIV 344  
        Introduction 344  
        Common MRI Findings in HIV 345  
        Structural MRI and Cognitive Performance 346  
        White Matter Abnormalities in HIV 347  
        Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and HIV 347  
        HIV and fMRI 349  
        Diffusion Tensor Imaging and HIV 350  
        New Imaging Possibilities in HIV 351  
        Summary and Conclusions 353  
        References 354  
     Chapter 21: Neuroimaging and Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis 357  
        Structural Imaging 358  
        Functional Neuroimaging 359  
        Other Functional Imaging Modalities 362  
        Conclusions and Future Directions 362  
        Other Neuroimaging Techniques 363  
        Improvements in Analyses of Traditional Neuroimaging Data 364  
        Multisequence MRI 364  
        Paradigms 365  
        Beyond Cognitive Function 365  
        Summary 366  
        References 366  
     Chapter 22: Neuroimaging of Fatigue 370  
        Fatigue in MS 370  
        Structural MRI Studies of Fatigue in MS 371  
        Fatigue in MS Using Advanced MRI Imaging 372  
        Functional Neuroimaging Techniques to Examine Fatigue in MS 373  
        Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 376  
           Structural Neuroimaging in CFS and Fatigue 376  
              Functional Neuroimaging of Fatigue in CFS 376  
        Functional Neuroimaging in Other Clinical Populations 378  
        Conclusions 379  
        References 380  
     Chapter 23: Brain Imaging in Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Neuroscience: Synthesis 383  
        Methodological Considerations 384  
           Physiological and Metabolic Neuroimaging 384  
           Multimodal Imaging 385  
           Advantages and Limitations of Neuroimaging Techniques 385  
           MR-Based Methods Advantages 385  
           MR-Based Methods Limitations 385  
           Radiological Imaging 386  
        Clinical Neuroimaging: Current Landscape 386  
           Neuroimaging in Neurology 386  
           Neuroimaging in Medical Conditions that Affect the Brain 387  
           Neuroimaging in Behavioral Medicine 388  
        Future Directions 389  
           Functional Brain Imaging: Future Clinical Directions 389  
           The Frontier: New and Emerging Imaging Methods 390  
        Conclusions 391  
        References 391  
     Index 394  


nach oben


  Mehr zum Inhalt
Kapitelübersicht
Kurzinformation
Inhaltsverzeichnis
Leseprobe
Blick ins Buch
Fragen zu eBooks?

  Medientyp
  eBooks
  eJournal
  alle

  Navigation
Belletristik / Romane
Computer
Geschichte
Kultur
Medizin / Gesundheit
Philosophie / Religion
Politik
Psychologie / Pädagogik
Ratgeber
Recht
Reise / Hobbys
Sexualität / Erotik
Technik / Wissen
Wirtschaft

  Info
Hier gelangen Sie wieder zum Online-Auftritt Ihrer Bibliothek
© 2008-2020 ciando GmbH | Impressum | Kontakt | F.A.Q. | Datenschutz