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Handbook of Medical Neuropsychology - Applications of Cognitive Neuroscience
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Handbook of Medical Neuropsychology - Applications of Cognitive Neuroscience
von: Carol L. Armstrong, Lisa Morrow
Springer-Verlag, 2010
ISBN: 9781441913647
564 Seiten, Download: 6311 KB
 
Format:  PDF
geeignet für: Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen PC, MAC, Laptop

Typ: B (paralleler Zugriff)

 

 
eBook anfordern
Inhaltsverzeichnis

  Foreword 6  
     References 9  
  Preface 10  
  Contents 12  
  Contributors 15  
  Part I Primary Nervous System Disease 20  
     1 Epilepsy and Cognitive Plasticity 21  
        Introduction: Why Study Cognition in Epilepsy 21  
        Biological Bases for Epilepsy 22  
        General Cognitive Characteristics of Epilepsy 22  
        Chronicity of Seizures 23  
        Seizures Initiate Neuroplasticity 24  
        Cognitive Deficits Outside the Epileptogenic Zone and the Development of Neural Networks 25  
           Diaschisis and Inhibition 25  
           Seizure Propagation 25  
           Secondary Epileptogenesis 26  
        Seizures as an Example of Maladaptive Plasticity 26  
        Cognitive Reorganization from Epilepsy 27  
        The Role of Neuropsychology in Epilepsy 28  
        The Changing Surgical Algorithm and Neuroimaging 29  
        FMRI and Other Neurocognitive Tools in Epilepsy 31  
        Future Directions 32  
        Conclusion 32  
        References 32  
     2 Traumatic Brain Injury 35  
        Epidemiology 35  
        Etiology 35  
           Mechanisms of Injury 35  
           Primary and Secondary Injuries 36  
        Types of Injury 36  
           Penetrating Head Injury 36  
           Closed Head Injury 36  
        Rating Severity of TBI 37  
           Loss of Consciousness 37  
           Posttraumatic Amnesia 37  
           Severity Classifications 37  
        Neuroimaging and TBI 39  
           Structural Imaging 39  
           Diffusion Tensor Imaging 39  
           Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 39  
           Functional Imaging 40  
        Frontal Systems, Cognition, and Behavior 40  
           Dorsolateral Prefrontal Circuit 40  
           Orbitofrontal Circuit 41  
           Anterior Cingulate 41  
        Neuropsychological Assessment of TB I 42  
           Attention 42  
           Memory 42  
           Executive Functions 43  
        Executive Functions: The Need for Subcategories 45  
        Neuropsychological Assessment as a Dynamic Process 46  
        Summary 46  
        References 47  
     3 Neuropsychological Problems in Neuro-oncology 51  
        Introduction and History 51  
           Incidence of CNS Tumors 52  
        Biological Processes of Brain Neoplasms 52  
           The Genesis of Brain Tumors 52  
        Diagnosis of Brain Neoplasms 55  
           Risks for Developing a Brain Tumor 55  
           Brain Tumor Classification and Histologic Groupings 55  
           Tumor Grading 55  
        Neuropsychological Mechanisms 56  
           Effects of Tumors on Cognitive Function 56  
           Do Tumors Cause Regional Cognitive Effects? 57  
           Conclusions 59  
           Regional Effects in Individuals 59  
           Individualized Approach to Neuropsychological Evaluation and Case Examples 59  
           Sensitivity of Neuropsychological Evaluation 60  
           Effects of Neurosurgery on Cognitive Function 61  
        Syndromal Neuropsychiatric Disturbances and Treatments Associated with Brain Tumors 61  
        Effects of Adjuvant Treatments on Cognition 64  
           Radiation Therapy (Radiotherapy) 64  
        Conclusions 70  
        References 70  
     4 Multiple System Atrophy, Orthostatic Hypotension, and Autonomic Dysfunction and Cognition 75  
        Introduction 75  
        Clinical Features 75  
        Diagnosis 76  
        Pathology 79  
        Cognition, Attention, and Depression in MSA 79  
        Mood 80  
        Treatment 81  
           Parkinsonism 81  
           Cerebellar Dysfunction 81  
           Dysautonomia 82  
           Orthostatic Hypotension 82  
        Conclusions and Future Directions 82  
        References 83  
  Part II Vascular System Disease 85  
     5 Cardiovascular Disease and Neurocognitive Function 86  
        Cardiovascular Disease Classification 87  
        Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Neurocognitive Function 87  
           Genetics 87  
           Traditional Biomedical Risk Factors 87  
              Hypertension/Antihypertensives 88  
              Lipids/Statins 89  
              Obesity 90  
              Diabetes, the Metabolic Syndrome, Glucose, Insulin 91  
           Biomarkers 93  
              Inflammation 93  
              Oxidative Stress 94  
              Biomarkers of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) 94  
              Homocysteine 95  
           Behavioral Risk Factors 95  
              Smoking 95  
              Alcohol 96  
              Diet/Antioxidants 96  
              Physical Activity, Exercise 96  
           Psychosocial Risk 97  
           Psychophysiological Risk 97  
              Autonomic Nervous System 97  
              Hypothalamic--Pituitary--Adrenocortical (HPA) Axis 97  
           Summary 98  
        Cardiovascular Diseases and Neurocognitive Function 99  
           Cardiac Arrhythmias, Cardiac Arrest 99  
           Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease 100  
              Atherosclerosis 100  
              Arterial Stiffness 101  
              Endothelial Dysfunction 101  
              Left Ventricular Hypertrophy 102  
              Mechanisms 102  
           Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) 102  
           Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) 103  
           Peripheral Arterial Disease 103  
           Heart Failure/Heart Transplantation 104  
           Summary 105  
        Discussion 105  
        References 107  
     6 Cerebrovascular Disease and Disorders 117  
        Introduction 117  
        Medical Information Regarding Cerebrovascular Disorders 117  
           Risk Factors for Cerebrovascular Disorders 117  
           Clinical Presentation of Cerebrovascular Disorders 118  
           Diagnosis of Cerebrovascular Disorders 118  
           Treatment of Cerebrovascular Disorders 120  
           Mechanisms Underlying Cognitive Dysfunction in Cerebrovascular Disorders 121  
        Neuropsychological Assessment Following Stroke 122  
           Assessment in the Acute Phase 122  
           Intellectual Functioning 123  
           Language 124  
           Memory 125  
           Attention and Neglect 126  
           Executive Functioning 128  
           Higher-Order Visual Processing Skills 130  
           Fine Motor and Sensory Functioning 131  
           Emotional and Behavioral Functioning 131  
        Long-Term Neuropsychological Outcome 132  
        Treatment Approaches to Cognitive Impairment Due to Cerebrovascular Disease 133  
        References 134  
     7 Cognitive Declines During Migraine and Cluster Headaches Are Caused by Cerebral 5HT Neurotransmitter Dysfunction 138  
        Introduction and Neurological Mechanisms of Headaches 138  
        History 139  
        Experimental Studies of Treatments 139  
           Participants 140  
           Hypotheses to Be Tested 141  
           Ethical Treatment 141  
           Results 141  
        References 142  
     8 Respiratory Disorders: Effects on Neurocognitive and Brain Function 144  
        Introduction 144  
           Effects of Hypoxia 144  
           Mechanisms of Brain Injury 145  
           Neuroimaging Findings 145  
           Neurological and Neuropsychological Sequelae 145  
        Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 146  
           Neurocognitive Morbidity 146  
           Neuropsychiatric Morbidity 147  
           COPD Summary 148  
        Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome 148  
           Mechanisms of Injury 148  
           Neurocognitive Morbidity 149  
           Neuropsychiatric Morbidity 149  
           ARDS Summary 150  
        Carbon Monoxide Poisoning 150  
           Neurocognitive Morbidity 150  
           Neuropsychiatric Morbidity 151  
           CO Summary 152  
        Obstructive Sleep Apnea 152  
           Neurocognitive Morbidity 152  
           Neuropsychiatric Morbidity 153  
           OSA Summary 153  
        Rehabilitation Outcomes Following Anoxia 153  
        Conclusions 154  
        References 154  
  Part III Developmental, Genetic, and Structural Disorders 161  
     9 Cerebral Palsy: Effects of Early Brain Injury on Development 162  
        Introduction 162  
           Etiology 162  
           Neuroimaging 163  
           Diagnosis 163  
           Prevalence 164  
        Neuropsychological Functioning 164  
           Intelligence 164  
           Visual-Perceptual Impairments 165  
           Attention Dysfunctions 166  
           The Crowding Hypothesis 166  
           Language and Speech Impairments 166  
           Arithmetic Difficulties 167  
           Limitations in Theory of Mind 167  
           Longitudinal Follow-Up of the Gross Motor and Cognitive Development 168  
           Problems with Cognitive Assessment in the Clinic 168  
        Intervention 169  
           Functional Limitations 169  
           Types and Efficacy of Intervention 170  
        Conclusions and Future Directions 172  
        References 172  
     10 Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective 177  
        History and Background 177  
        Biological Underpinnings 177  
           Neuroanatomic Abnormalities 177  
           Postmortem Studies 178  
           MRI Studies 178  
           White Matter Connectivity 179  
           EEG Abnormalities and Seizures 180  
        Diagnosis 181  
           Screening Guidelines 181  
           Clinical and Research Criteria 182  
           Increased Prevalence of Autism: It Is Not the Vaccine 182  
        Neurocognitive Mechanisms 183  
           Major Cognitive Models 183  
        Cognitive Profiles 184  
           Attention 184  
           Sensation/Perception 186  
           Language 188  
           Social/Emotional 189  
        Treatment 192  
           Behavioral 193  
           Pharmacologic 193  
        Summary and Conclusion 194  
        References 194  
     11 Genetic Syndromes Associated with Intellectual Disabilities 204  
        Down Syndrome 205  
           Genetics, Prevalence, and Overview 205  
           Behavioral Phenotype 206  
           Linguistic Dimensions of the Phenotype 207  
           Neural Bases of the Phenotype 209  
           Summary 211  
        Fragile X Syndrome and Related Conditions 211  
           Genetics, Prevalence, and Overview 211  
           Full Mutation 211  
           Premutation 215  
           Summary 215  
        Williams Syndrome 215  
           Genetics, Prevalence, and Overview 215  
           Behavioral Phenotype 216  
           Linguistic Dimensions of the Behavioral Phenotype 217  
           Neural Bases of the Phenotype 219  
           Summary 220  
        Issues in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities of Genetic Origin 220  
           Implications 220  
           Limitations 222  
        Families and the Neuropsychological Assessment of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities of Genetic Origin 223  
        References 224  
     12 An Introduction to Hydrocephalus: Congenital and Late-Life Onset 233  
        Introduction 233  
        The Ventricular System 233  
        Neuropsychological Outcomes in Congenital Hydrocephalus 234  
        Intelligence 235  
        Attention and Executive Functioning in Children 236  
           Memory 236  
           Language 236  
           Visuospatial 237  
           Motor 237  
           Emotional Functioning 237  
           Overall Profile in Congenital Hydrocephalus 238  
           Etiology of Profile 239  
        Late-Life Onset: Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus 239  
        Clinical Presentation 239  
        Cognitive Profile 240  
        Traditional Treatment: Shunting 240  
        New Treatment Approach: Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy 241  
        Summary 242  
        References 243  
     13 Learning Disabilities 247  
        History and Background 247  
           Prevalence Rates of LD 248  
        The Process of Diagnosis 249  
           Evaluating Children at Risk for LD 250  
        Biological and Neuropsychological Mechanisms 252  
           Genetic Influences 252  
           Brain Mechanisms and Correlates of Dyslexia 252  
           Brain Mechanisms and Correlates of Dyscalculia 254  
           Brain Mechanisms and Correlates of Dysgraphia 255  
        Treatment 255  
        Summary and Future Directions 256  
        References 257  
     14 Frontal Lobe Disorders in Pediatric Neuropsychology: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Tourette Disorder 261  
        Introduction 261  
        Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 261  
           Definition 261  
           Etiology 262  
           Neuroanatomy/Pathophysiology 263  
           Comorbidity 264  
           Assessment 265  
           Treatment: Overview 266  
              Psychoeducation 266  
              Medical Treatment 266  
              Behavior Management 268  
           Long-Term Outcome 270  
        Tourette Disorder 271  
           Definition 271  
           Phenomenology 271  
           Prevalence and Etiology 272  
           Neurobiology 273  
           Associated Conditions/Comorbidity 275  
           Neuropsychological Functions 276  
           Evaluation 277  
           Treatment 277  
              Psychosocial Interventions 278  
              Medications 279  
              Somatic Treatments 280  
           Prognosis/Long-Term Outcomes 280  
        References 281  
  Part IV Aging 284  
     15 Dementia 285  
        Introduction 285  
        Neuropsychological Testing of Dementias 286  
        Alzheimers Disease 287  
           Neuropsychology of AD 288  
           Areas Relatively Preserved 291  
           Symptoms Associated with Age of Onset in AD 291  
           Emotional and Psychotic Symptoms 291  
           Posterior Cortical Atrophy 292  
        Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) 293  
        Parkinsons Disease Dementia (PDD) 295  
        Binswangers Dementia 296  
           Subcortical Arteriosclerotic Encephalopathy 296  
        Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Prion Diseases) 297  
        Mild Cognitive Impairment [Similar to Cognitively Impaired, No Dementia (CIND)] 298  
        Conclusion 299  
        References 299  
     16 Theoretical Perspectives on Cognitive Aging 304  
        Historical Perspective 304  
        Neurological Changes Associated with Cognitive Aging 305  
        Theories of Cognitive Aging 306  
           Speed of Processing 306  
           Inhibitory Deficit Hypothesis 307  
        Self-Initiated Processing Deficits 309  
        What Do We Know So Far 311  
        Neuropsychological and Neurocognitive Variability in the Older Adult Population 311  
           Gender 311  
           Frontal Functioning 311  
           Mild Cognitive Impairment 313  
        Treatment in Light of Cognitive Interactions 313  
        Conclusions and New Directions 315  
        References 316  
     17 Neuropsychology of Movement Disorders and MotorNeuron Disease 321  
        Introduction 321  
        Parkinson's Disease 321  
           Biological Underpinnings and Diagnosis 321  
           Neuropsychological Mechanisms 322  
              Attention and Executive Functions 322  
              Motor Skills and Information Processing Speed 322  
              Language 323  
              Learning and Memory 323  
              Visuoperception 323  
              Neuropsychiatric Factors 324  
        Progressive Supranuclear Palsy 324  
           Biological Underpinnings and Diagnosis 324  
           Neuropsychological Mechanisms 324  
              Attention and Executive Functions 325  
              Motor Skills and Information Processing Speed 325  
              Language 325  
              Learning and Memory 325  
              Visuoperception 325  
              Neuropsychiatric Features 325  
        Essential Tremor 326  
           Biological Underpinnings and Diagnosis 326  
           Neuropsychological Mechanisms 326  
              Attention and Executive Functions 327  
              Motor Skills and Information Processing Speed 327  
              Language 327  
              Learning and Memory 327  
              Visuoperception 327  
              Neuropsychiatric Factors 328  
        Huntington's Disease 328  
           Biological Underpinnings and Diagnosis 328  
           Neuropsychological Mechanisms 328  
              Attention and Executive Functions 328  
              Motor Skills and Information Processing Speed 329  
              Language 329  
              Learning and Memory 329  
              Visuoperception 329  
              Neuropsychiatric Features 329  
        Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's Disease) 330  
           History and Diagnosis 330  
           Biological Underpinnings 330  
           Neuropsychological Mechanisms 330  
              Attention and Executive Functions 330  
              Motor Skills and Information Processing Speed 331  
              Language 331  
              Learning and Memory 331  
              Visuoperception 331  
              Neuropsychiatric Factors 331  
        Conclusions 332  
        References 332  
  Part V ImmuneMediated Disease 340  
     18 Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Theoriesof Cognition and Depression in Multiple Sclerosisand Guillain--Barre Syndrome 341  
        Multiple Sclerosis 341  
           Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation, and Course 341  
           Cognitive Neuroscience Theories 342  
           Possible Causes of Cognitive Deficits 344  
           Neuropsychological Assessment Tools 345  
           Relationship Between Cognitive Deficits and Illness Variables 348  
           Neurocognitive Theories of Depression 348  
           Family and Social Issues 351  
        GuillainBarr Syndrome 352  
           Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation, and Course 352  
           Neuropsychological Factors 353  
        Summary and Conclusions 353  
        References 354  
     19 Neurocognitive Function in Systemic Autoimmune and Rheumatic Diseases 358  
        Introduction 358  
        Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 358  
           Definitions and Epidemiology 358  
           Classification of Neuropsychiatric SLE 358  
           Pathophysiology of Cognitive Dysfunction Is Elusive 359  
           Risk Factors for Cognitive Dysfunction 360  
           The Role of Neuropsychological Testing in the Diagnosis of Cognitive Dysfunction in SLE 361  
           Neuroimaging Modalities in Studies of Cognitive Dysfunction 366  
        Rheumatoid Arthritis 367  
        Sjgrens Syndrome 369  
        Family and Social Issues 371  
        Treatment 371  
        Summary and Conclusions 372  
        References 372  
     20 HIV-AIDS: The Neurologic and Cognitive Consequences of HIV-1 Infection 376  
        Neuropathological Consequences of HIV Infection 376  
        Common HIV Staging Criterion 378  
        Cognitive Domains Affected 382  
           Attention 382  
           Memory 384  
           Language 384  
           Psychomotor Abilities 385  
           Executive Functions 385  
           Visuospatial Deficits 385  
        Cognitive Sequelae 386  
        Cognitive Batteries Used to Assess HIV-Associated Cognitive Dysfunction 387  
        Cognitive Confounds 388  
        Alcohol and Drug Abuse Issues 388  
        Co-infection with Hepatitis C 390  
        Advanced Age, HIV, and the Brain 391  
        Additional Host Risk Factors 392  
        Psychiatric Illness 392  
        Effects of HIV Treatment on Brain Function 393  
        Relevant Family or Social Issues 394  
        Future Directions 394  
        References 395  
     21 Rheumatologic Conditions: Sjogren's Syndrome, Fibromyalgia, and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 400  
        Fibromyalgia 400  
           Working Memory 400  
           Episodic Memory 404  
           Verbal Fluency 405  
           Attention and Concentration 405  
           Neuroimaging and Brain Activity 406  
        Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 407  
           Summary of Neuropsychological Findings 408  
           Neuroimaging and Brain Activity 409  
        Other Rheumatologic Conditions 410  
           Sj'gren's Syndrome and Cognitive Function 410  
           Chronic Pain and Cognitive Function 411  
        Summary 411  
        References 411  
  Part VI Endocrine Disease 415  
     22 Neuropsychological Sequelae of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes 416  
        Type 1 Diabetes 416  
           Overview of Type 1 Diabetes 416  
           T1D Cognitive Effects in Adults 416  
           Hypoglycemic Effects on Adult T1D Cognition 417  
           Hyperglycemic Effects on T1D Cognition 418  
           Cognitive Effects of Pediatric T1D 418  
           Hypoglycemia in T1D Youth 419  
           Hyperglycemia in T1D Youth 419  
           Early Onset T1D (EOD) and the Developing Brain 419  
           Cerebral Microvascular Effects in T1D 420  
           Depression and Cardiovascular Disease in T1D 421  
           T1D Conclusions and Implications 421  
        Type 2 Diabetes 421  
           Overview of Type 2 Diabetes 421  
           Cognitive Function in T2D 422  
           Cognitive Decline in T2D 422  
           Effects of Age and Disease Duration on T2D Cognitive Status 422  
           Hyperglycemic Effects in T2D 423  
           T2D and Hypoglycemia 423  
           Cerebral Microvascular Disease in T2D 423  
           Comorbid Macrovascular Disease 424  
           Depression and T2D 425  
           Alzheimer's Disease 425  
           Implications and Future Directions in T2D 425  
        T1 and T2 Diabetes: Overview and Conclusions 426  
        References 427  
     23 Neuropsychological Functioning of Endocrinology Disorders: Gonadotropic Hormones and Corticosteroids 431  
        Sex Hormones 431  
           Overview of Sex Hormones 431  
           Estrogen 431  
           Alzheimer Disease and HRT in Women 432  
           Turner Syndrome 433  
           Testosterone 434  
           Klinefelter Syndrome 435  
        Corticosteroids, Cushing Syndrome, and Addison Disease 436  
           Overview of Corticosteroids 436  
           Effects of Administration of Exogenous Steroids 436  
           Cushing Syndrome 437  
           Adrenal and Corticosteroid Insufficiency 438  
        Sex Hormones and Corticosteroids: Summary and Future Directions 439  
        References 440  
     24 Neuropsychological Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 446  
        Description of the Disorder 446  
           Diagnostic Criteria and Prevalence 446  
           Course and Associated Clinical Features 447  
        Neurobiological Basis of PTSD 447  
        Neuroimaging Findings 448  
           Structural Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) 448  
           Functional Imaging 448  
           Summary and Related Literatures 448  
        Neuropsychological Functioning in PTSD 449  
           Empirical Findings 449  
           Implications for Clinical Evaluation 450  
           Neurobehavioral Instrument Selection 452  
           The Emotional Stroop Paradigm 453  
        Treatment Implications 454  
           Pharmacological Treatment 454  
           Psychotherapy 454  
           Family Considerations 455  
        Conclusions 455  
        References 456  
  Part VII Metabolic Disease 465  
     25 Hepatic Encephalopathy 466  
        Neurocognitive and Neuroscience Theory and Background 466  
        Review of the Attempts to Identify the Most Specific Neuropsychological Assessment for Diagnosis 467  
           Altered Mental Status in Patients with Cirrhosis 467  
           Physical Examination 468  
           Motor Exam 468  
           Neuropsychological Examination and Psychometric Testing 468  
           Neurophysiologic Testing 469  
           Limitations of Currently Available Psychometric and Neurophysiologic Tests 469  
        Additional Helpful Information About the Diagnostic Question 469  
           Population to Be Tested 470  
        State-of-the-Art Diagnostic, Open Access, and Treatments 470  
           State of the Art and Open Access Diagnostic Strategies 470  
           Treatments for HE 471  
        A Brief Section on Relevant Family or Social Issues 471  
        Summary 472  
        References 472  
     26 Toxic Disorders and Encephalopathy 475  
        Organic Solvents 475  
           Cognitive Changes 476  
           Emotional/Behavioral Changes 476  
           Neuroimaging 477  
        Lead 478  
           Cognitive Function 478  
           Emotional Functioning 479  
           Neuroimaging 479  
        Carbon Monoxide 480  
           Cognitive Symptoms 481  
           Emotional Symptoms 481  
           Neurological Changes 481  
           Neuroimaging 482  
        Additional Issues in the Assessment of Toxic Exposure 483  
        References 483  
     27 Neurocognition in Mitochondrial Disorders 486  
        Background 486  
        The Process of Diagnosing a Mitochondrial Disorder 487  
        Biological Underpinnings of Mitochondrial Disorders 488  
           Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes (MELAS) 488  
           Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged-Red Fibers (MERRF) 489  
           Kearns--Sayre Syndrome (KSS) 490  
           Leigh Syndrome (LS) and Neurogenic Muscle Weakness, Ataxia, Retinitis Pigmentosa (NARP) 490  
           Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) 491  
           Barth Syndrome 491  
           Non-syndromic Mitochondrial Disease 491  
        Treatment 492  
        Neurological Similarities Among Mitochondrial Disorders 492  
           Basal Ganglia Calcification 492  
           White Matter Anomalies 492  
        Neuropsychological Assessment in Mitochondrial Disorders 493  
        Conclusions/Future Directions 493  
        References 494  
  Part VIII Rehabilitation 497  
     28 Current Approaches to Cognitive Rehabilitation 498  
        Current Approaches to Rehabilitation 498  
           Compensatory Approaches 498  
           Restorative Approaches 498  
           Metacognitive Approaches 498  
              Lessons from Plasticity 499  
              Sensory and Motor Functions 499  
              Cognitive Domains 499  
              Attention 500  
              Memory 501  
           Environmental Modification 501  
           Vanishing Cues 501  
           Errorless Learning 502  
           Distributed Practice 502  
        Prospective Memory Training 502  
           Other Techniques 502  
           Academic Strategies 503  
              Language 503  
              Dyslexia and Developmental Reading Disorders 504  
              Executive Functions 504  
           Compensatory Strategies 504  
        Behavioral Treatments 504  
        Direct Training 505  
        Metacognitive Strategies 505  
           Normal Aging 506  
           Virtual Reality 506  
           Brain--Computer Interface 507  
        Conclusions 507  
        References 508  
     29 Sensory Reweighting: A Rehabilitative Mechanism0 511  
        History and Background 511  
        Sensory Reweighting in Older Adults 512  
        Balance Training 513  
        Multisensory Integration: The Light-Touch/Vision Paradigm 514  
        Sensory Reweighting in the Fall-Prone Elderly Population 515  
        A Multisensory Intervention 517  
        Conclusions 519  
        References 519  
  Subject Index 522  


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