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Readings in Qualitative Reasoning About Physical Systems
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Readings in Qualitative Reasoning About Physical Systems
von: Daniel S. Weld, Johan De Kleer
Elsevier Reference Monographs, 2013
ISBN: 9781483214474
733 Seiten, Download: 143775 KB
 
Format:  PDF
geeignet für: Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen PC, MAC, Laptop

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

  Front Cover 1  
  Readings in Qualitative Reasoning About Physical Systems 4  
  Copyright Page 5  
  Table of Contents 8  
  Preface 6  
  Qualitative Physics: A Personal View 14  
     1. The Confusion Seminar 15  
     2. Qualitative Reasoning for Solving Physics Problems 15  
     3. Qualitative and Causal Reasoning for Circuit Diagnosis 17  
     4. Qualitative and Causal Reasoning for Design 18  
     5. Causality, Structure, and Function 19  
     6. Are We Doing Physics or Psychology? 20  
     7· Whither Qualitative Physics? 20  
  Part 1: Overview and Motivation 22  
     Introduction 22  
     Chapter 1. Qualitative Physics: Past, Present, and Future 24  
        1 Introduction 24  
        2 Why Qualitative Physics 24  
        3 The Past 27  
        4 The State of the Art 30  
        5 The Frontier 45  
        Acknowledgments 49  
        References 49  
     Chapter 1.2 Multiple Representations of Knowledge in a Mechanics Problem-Solver 53  
        Abstract 53  
        Introduction 53  
        Theory 53  
        The Program NEWTON 54  
        Envisioning and Planning 56  
        Problem Formulation 57  
        Concluding Remarks 57  
        Acknowledgements 58  
        References 58  
     Chapter 1.3 The Second Naive Physics Manifesto 59  
        1. Preface 59  
        2. Introduction 59  
        3. What the Proposal Isn't 59  
        4. Theories, Tokens and Closure 61  
        5. Meanings, Theories and Model Theory 63  
        6. Discovering Intuitions and Building Theories 65  
        7. Clusters 67  
        8. Getting It Done 73  
        9. Why It Needs To Be Done 75  
        10. Is This Science? 76  
        Acknowledgments 76  
        Reference 76  
     Chapter 1.4 Modeling Simultaneous Actions and Continuous Processes 77  
        1. Introduction: World Modeling 77  
        2. Realizing the Philosophy of Processes 77  
        3. World Modeling in Conventional Robot Systems 78  
        4. A Qoser Look at the Nature of Processes 79  
        5. The Process Model: An Overview 80  
        6. A Sample World 82  
        7. Elementary Examples of Scenarios 82  
        8. More Complex Scenarios: The Filling of a Bucket 84  
        9. Scenarios with Effects Sandwiches 86  
        10. Scenarios for Conventional Robot Operati 88  
        11. Modeling the Execution of Plans 91  
        12. Implementation 93  
        13. Summary 93  
        ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 94  
        REFERENCES 94  
  Chapter 2. Qualitative Simulation 96  
     Introduction 96  
      2.1 A Qualitative Physics Based on Confluences 101  
        1. Introduction 101  
        2. Naive Physics 104  
        3. Modeling Structure 107  
        4. Prediction of Behavior 114  
        5. Explanation of Behavior 122  
        6. Causality and Digital Physics 126  
        7. Summary 135  
        Appendix A. Interpretations 136  
        Appendix B. A Procedure for Constructing the Expanded Episode Diagram 138  
        ACKNOWLEDGMENT 138  
        REFERENCES 138  
     Chapter 2.2 Qualitative Reasoning with Higher-Order Derivatives 140  
        ABSTRACT 140  
        INTRODUCTION 140  
        QUALITATIVE MODELING 140  
        SIMULATION 141  
        RULE(O) : VALUE CONTINUITY 141  
        RULE(1): CONTRADICTION AVOIDANCE 142  
        QUALITATIVE AMBIGUITY 142  
        RULE(2): INSTANT CHANGK RULE 143  
        RULE(3): DERIVATIVE CONTINUITY 143  
        RULE(4) : DERIVA UVE INSTANT CHANGE RULE 143  
        INSTANTS 143  
        RULE (5): HIGHER-ORDER DERIVATIVES 144  
        RULE(6): NO CHANGE TO ALL ZERO DERIVATIVES 144  
        QUALITATIVE vs. QUANTITATIVE 144  
        OPEN PROBLEMS 145  
        ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 145  
        REFERENCES 145  
     Chapter 2.3 Temporal Qualitative Analysis: Explaining How Physical Systems Work 146  
        Abstract 146  
        1. Introduction 146  
        2. Qualitative Values 150  
        3. Causal Propagation 152  
        4. Transition Analysis 157  
        5. Feedback Analysis 164  
        6. Complex Qualitative Values and Operating Regions 177  
        7. Discussion 184  
        8. Appendix: Transition Ordering Rules 188  
        References 189  
     Chapter 2.4 Qualitative Process Theory 191  
        1. Introduction 191  
        2. Objects and Quantities 195  
        3. Processes 200  
        4. Examples 209  
        5. Further Consequences 223  
        6. Discussion 229  
        ACKNOWLEDGMENT 231  
        REFERENCES 231  
     Chapter 2.5 The Qualitative Process Engine 233  
        1. Introduction 233  
        2. Using an ATMS 234  
        3. The Qualitative Process Engine 238  
        4. Conclusions 246  
        5. Acknowledgements 247  
        References 247  
     Chapter 2.6 Qualitative Simulation 249  
        1. Introduction 249  
        2. Qualitative Behavior 253  
        3. Qualitative Structure 255  
        4. Qualitative Simulation 257  
        5. Questions and Answers 261  
        Appendix A. The Qualitative State Transitions 265  
        Appendix B. Constraint Consistency 268  
        Appendix C. The QSIM Program and its Output 272  
        ACKNOWLEDGMENT 272  
        REFERENCES 273  
     Chapter 2.7 Taming Intractable Branching in Qualitative Simulation 274  
        Abstract 274  
        1. Introduction 274  
        2. Ignoring Irrelevant Distinctions 276  
        3. Applying Higher-Order Derivatives 277  
        4. Conclusions 279  
        5. References 280  
     Chapter 2.8 Non-intersection of Trajectories in Qualitative Phase Space: A Global Constraint for Qualitative Simulation 281  
        Abstract 281  
        1. Introduction 281  
        2. The Phase Space View 281  
        3. The Non-IntersectionConstraint 282  
        4. Implementation 283  
        5. An Example 283  
        6. Discussion 284  
        7. Related Work 284  
        8. Conclusions 285  
        Acknowledgments 285  
        References 285  
     Chapter 2.9 Global Filters for Qualitative Behaviors 286  
        Abstract 286  
        1. Introduction 286  
        2. Outline of the Paper 286  
        3. Some Questions 286  
        4. Infering Qualitative Behavior 286  
        5. Filtering Behaviors 287  
        6. Exploiting the Phase Portrait 288  
        7. Summary 290  
        Acknowledgements 290  
        References 290  
     Chapter 2.10 Reasoning about Discontinuous Change 291  
        ABSTRACT 291  
        I. Introduction 291  
        II. Properties of Discontinuous Change 291  
        ?II. Previous Work 292  
        IV. The Approximation Method 293  
        V. The Direct Method 294  
        VI. Comparison and Concluding Remarks 296  
        References 296  
  Chapter 3. Mathematical Aspects of Qualitative Reasoning 298  
     Introduction 298  
     3.1 Problems of Interval-Based Qualitative Reasoning 301  
        Abstract 301  
        1. Introduction 301  
        2. A Framework for Analyzing Qualitative Reasoning Methods 302  
        3. Qualitative Reasoning Methods for Equations 305  
        4. Interval Arithmetic 1 306  
        5. A Modified Concept of Solution -Interval Arithmetic 2 309  
        6. Arithmetic on a Finite Number ofIntervals - Interval Arithmetic 3 315  
        7. Summary 317  
        Acknowledgements 317  
        References 318  
     Chapter 3.2 Assembling a Device 319  
        Abstract 319  
        1. Introduction 319  
        2. Assembling some devices 319  
        3. Scanning the qualitative resolution rule 321  
        4. Completeness of qualitative resolution 323  
        5. Task-oriented confluences 324  
        6. Conclusion 324  
        References 324  
     Chapter 3.3 MINIMA A Symbolic Approach to Qualitative Algebraic Reasoning 325  
        Abstract 325  
        1. Introduction 325  
        2. Example: Culinary Design 325  
        3. The Qualitative Algebra Q1 326  
        4. Properties of Q1 327  
        5. Using a Qualitative Algebra for Design 328  
        6. MINIMA 329  
        7. Example Revisited 330  
        8. Discussion 330  
        References 330  
     Chapter 3.4 Order of Magnitude Reasoning 331  
        ABSTRACT 331  
        INTRODUCTION 331  
        I. A SIMPLE EXAMPLE 331  
        II. FOG 332  
        III. BACK TO THE EXAMPLE 333  
        IV. VALIDITY OF FOG IN NON-STANDARD ANALYSIS 334  
        V. HOW TO USE FOG 334  
        VI. FOG AND THE QUANTITY SPACE 335  
        CONCLUSION 335  
        ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 335  
        REFERENCES 335  
     Chapter 3.5 Formal Order-of-Magnitude Reasoning in Process Engineering 336  
        1. INTRODUCTION 336  
        2. PREVIOUS WORK 337  
        3. THE SCOPE OF ORDER-OF-MAGNITUDE REASONING IN PROCESS ENGINEERING 338  
        4. THE O(M) FORMALISM 339  
        5. IMPLEMENTATION 344  
        6. DETAILED REASONING EXAMPLES 345  
        7. DISCUSSION 348  
        8. CONCLUSIONS 348  
        REFERENCES 348  
     Chapter 3.6 "Commonsense" Arithmetic Reasoning 350  
        Abstract 350  
        1. Introduction 350  
        2. The Quantity Lattice 350  
        3. Results 354  
        4. Relation to Other Work 355  
        5. Conclusions 356  
        References 356  
     Chapter 3.7 Hierarchical Reasoning about Inequalities 357  
        Abstract 357  
        I. Introduction 357  
        II. The Context Manager 358  
        III· Bounding Algorithms 358  
        IV. Related Work 360  
        V. Conclusions 361  
        References 362  
  Chapter 4. History-Based Simulation and Temporal Reasoning 364  
     Introduction 364  
     4.1 Doing Time: Putting Qualitative Reasoning on Firmer Ground 366  
        Abstract 366  
        1. Introduction 366  
        2. Qualitative Reasoning In A Nutshell 366  
        3. Limitations of the Existing Approach 367  
        4. Representing Behavior Over Time 367  
        5. Propagation of Constraints 368  
        6. The Basic Constraint Propagator 368  
        7. Temporal Constraint Propagatior 368  
        8. Histories 368  
        9. Making Histories Concise 369  
        10. The Time Box 370  
        11. Modeling Time for Feedback Systems 371  
        12. Qualitative Reasoning Revisited 372  
        13. Summary and Research Status 373  
        14. Acknowledgements 373  
        References 373  
     Chapter 4.2 Maintaining Knowledge about Temporal Intervals 374  
        1. INTRODUCTION 374  
        2. BACKGROUND 375  
        3. TIME POINTS VS. TIME INTERVALS 376  
        4. MAINTAINING TEMPORAL RELATIONS 376  
        5. CONTROLLING PROPAGATION: REFERENCE INTERVALS 380  
        6. DISCUSSION 383  
        7. FUTURE RESEARCH AND EXTENSIONS 383  
        8. SUMMARY 385  
        REFERENCES 385  
     Chapter 4.3 Constraint Propagation Algorithms for Temporal Reasoning: A Revised Report 386  
        The Interval Algebra 386  
        Determining Closure in the Interval Algebra 387  
        Intractability of the Interval Algebra 389  
        Consequences of Intractability 390  
        Restricting the Interval Algebra 390  
        Time Point Algebras 391  
        Continuous Endpoint Uncertainty 391  
        Additional Results 393  
        Applying Temporal Representations 394  
        Acknowledgements 394  
        References 394  
     Chapter 4.4 Reasoning about Partially Ordered Events 395  
        1. Introduction 395  
        2. Temporal Projection 395  
        3. Incomplete Decision Procedures 397  
        4. Probabilistic Decision Procedures 404  
        5. Conclusions 404  
        Appendix A 405  
  Chapter 5. Other Styles of Reasoning 408  
     Introduction 408  
     Chapter 5.1 Comparative Analysis 410  
        1. Introduction 410  
        2. Preliminaries 413  
        3. Differential Qualitative Analysis 416  
        4. Changes in Behavioral Topology 423  
        5. Related Work 427  
        6. Future Directions 428  
        Appendix A. A Useful Example 428  
        ACKNOWLEDGMENT 429  
        REFERENCES 429  
     Chapter 5.2 Exaggeration 430  
        Abstract 430  
        1. Introduction 430  
        2. Transform Phase 431  
        3. Simulate Phase 431  
        4. Scale Phase 433  
        5. Related Work 433  
        References 434  
     Chapter 5.3 Order of Magnitude Reasoning in Qualitative Differential Equations 435  
        1. Introduction 435  
        2. Theory 436  
        3. Sample Inferences 440  
        4. Algorithm 442  
        5. The CHEPACHET Program 445  
        6. Further Work 446  
        7. References 446  
     Chapter 5.4 Troubleshooting: When Modeling Is the Trouble 448  
        I. Introduction 448  
        II. Complexity of Troubleshooting in Analog Circuits 448  
        III. Exploiting Significant Changes in Behavior 449  
        IV. Qualitative Modeling in DEDALE 449  
        V. Example of Diagnosis 451  
        VI. Strategy 452  
        VII. Conclusion 453  
        Acknowledgments 453  
        Appendix 453  
        References 453  
     Chapter 5.5 Interpreting Observations of Physical Systems 454  
        I. INTRODUCTION 454  
        II. INPUT DATA AND SEGMENTATION 455  
        III. INTERPRETING SEGMENTS 458  
        IV. CONSTRUCTING GLOBAL INTERPRETATIONS 461  
        ACKNOWLEDGMENT 463  
        REFERENCES 463  
  Chapter 6. Automating Quantitative Analysis 464  
     Introduction 464  
     Chapter 6.1 Intelligence in Scientific Computing 466  
        NUMERICAL MODELING CAN BE AUTOMATED 467  
        INTELLIGENT NUMERICAL COMPUTING RESTS ON AI TECHNOLOGY 474  
        INTELLIGENT TOOLS ARE FEASIBLE 479  
        REFERENCES 481  
     Chapter 6.2 Generating Global Behaviors Using Deep Knowledge of Local Dynamics 483  
        Abstract 483  
        1. Introduction 483  
        2. Ontology 484  
        3. The Task 485  
        4. Characteristics of Task Domain 485  
        5. Implementation 486  
        6. Experiments 487  
        7. Evaluating the performance 487  
        8. Conclusion 488  
        References 488  
     Chapter 6.3 Piecewise Linear Reasoning 489  
        Abstract 489  
        I. Introduction 489  
        II. The PLR Methodology 489  
        III. The Lienard Equation 490  
        IV. The Van der Pol Equation 491  
        V. Previous Work 492  
        VI. Implementation Status 493  
        VII. Conclusions 493  
        References 493  
  Chapter 7. Multiple Ontologies and Automated Modeling 494  
     Introduction 494  
     Chapter 7.1 Naive Physics I: Ontology for Liquids 497  
        1. Introduction 497  
        2. Individuals and Individuation 497  
        3. The Problem With Liquids 498  
        4. Doing Without Liquid Individuals: Containment 499  
        5. Space: Places, Enclosures and Portals 500  
        6. The Fifteen States of Liquids 504  
        7. Change and Movement: Histories 506  
        8. Histories of Lazy Bulk Liquid 508  
        9. Some Examples 511  
        10. Liquid Individuals Revisited 513  
        11. Further Works 514  
        Acknowledgments 515  
        References 515  
     Chapter 7.2 Reasoning about Fluids via Molecular Collections 516  
        Abstract 516  
        I. Introduction 516  
        II. The theory of molecular collections 516  
        III. Examples 518  
        IV. Discussion 519  
        V. Acknowledgements 520  
        References 520  
     Chapter 7.3 Multiple Models of Evaporation Processes 521  
        Aggregate ?odels 523  
        A Molecular Model 524  
        Conclusion 525  
        References 525  
     Chapter 7.4 The Use of Aggregation in Causal Simulation 526  
        1. Introduction 526  
        2. Demonstration 528  
        3. Representing State and Change 530  
        4. Aggregation 532  
        5. Applicability 539  
        6. Related Work 541  
        7. Conclusion 542  
        ACKNOWLEDGMENT 542  
        REFERENCES 542  
     Chapter 7.5 Abstraction by Time-Scale in Qualitative Simulation 543  
        1. The Problem of Scale 543  
        2. Time-Scale Abstraction 543  
        3. Communicating Across Time-Scales 545  
        4. Conclusions 547  
        5. References 547  
     Chapter 7.6 Diagnosis via Causal Reasoning: Paths of Interaction and the Locality Principle 548  
        Abstract 548  
        1. INTRODUCTION 548  
        2. CENTRAL CONCERNS 548  
        3. BACKGROUND 548  
        4. LAYERS OF INTERACTION EXAMPLE: DIAGNOSING A BRIDGE FAULT 550  
        5. PATHS OF INTERACTION 553  
        6. SUMMARY 554  
        REFERENCES 554  
     Chapter 7.7 Granularity 555  
        Abstract 555  
        Abstraction 555  
        Simplification 555  
        Idealization 556  
        Articulation 557  
        Intelligence 558  
        Acknowledgments 558  
        References 558  
     Chapter 7.8 Reasoning About Assumptions in Graphs of Models 559  
        Abstract 559  
        1. Introduction 559  
        2. Graphs of Models 560  
        3. Conflicts 561  
        4. Delta-Vectors 561  
        5. Assumption Knowledge 562  
        6. Selecting a Better Model 563  
        7. Conclusions and Future Work 564  
        References 565  
     Chapter 7.9 Setting Up Large-Scale Qualitative Models 566  
        Abstract 566  
        1. Introduction 566  
        2. The Modeling Process 566  
        3. A steam plant model 567  
        4. Modeling Assumptions 567  
        5. Organization of the model 569  
        6. Model selection for question-answering 570  
        7. Discussion 571  
        8. Acknowledgements 571  
        References 571  
  Chapter 8. Reasoning About Shape and Space 572  
     Introduction 572  
     Chapter 8.1 Qualitative Kinematics: A Framework 575  
        Abstract 575  
        I. Introduction 575  
        II. A Framework for Qualitative Kinematics 576  
        III. Example: FROB 578  
        IV. The Clock system 579  
        V. Other QK systems 579  
        VI. Discussion 580  
        VII. Acknowledgements 580  
        References 580  
     Chapter 8.2 Qualitative Kinematics in Mechanisms 581  
        Abstract 581  
        1. Introduction 581  
        2. Place Vocabularies 582  
        3. Descriptive Power of the Place Vocab-ulary 584  
        4. Computation of Place Vocabular 584  
        5. Conclusions 586  
        References 586  
     Chapter 8.3 Shape and Function in Mechanical Devices 588  
        Abstract 588  
        I. Introduction 588  
        II. An algorithm for the analysis of mechanisms 589  
        III. Local Interactions Analysis 589  
        IV. Global Interactions Analysis 591  
        V. Conclusions and future work 592  
        Acknowledgments 592  
        References 592  
     Chapter 8.4 Automated Reasoning about Machine Geometry and Kinematics 593  
        Abstract 593  
        Bibliography 604  
     Chapter 8.5 A Qualitative Approach to Mechanical Constraint 605  
        Abstract 605  
        1. Introduction 605  
        2. Representations 605  
        3. Mechanical Motion 606  
        4. Sample Mechanism 609  
        5. Discussion 609  
        6. Acknowledgements 609  
        References 609  
     Chapter 8.6 Simplification and Abstraction of Kinematic Behaviors 610  
        Abstract 610  
        1. Introduction 610  
        2. Describing Kinematic Behavior 611  
        3. Simplification and Abstraction Operators 612  
        4. Comparing Two Mechanisms 614  
        5. Conclusion 615  
        References 615  
     Chapter 8.7 A Framework for Qualitative Reasoning about Solid Objects 616  
        1. Abstract 616  
        2. Introduction 616  
        3. Background 616  
        4. Examples and Analysis 618  
        5. The Block on the Table 619  
        6. The Underlying Knowledge 619  
        7. Ontology 620  
        8. Axioms for Physical Reasoning 620  
        9. Conclusions 621  
        10. Acknowledgements 622  
        11. References 622  
  Chapter 9. Causal Explanations of Behavior 624  
     Introduction 624  
     Chapter 9.1 The Declarative Representation and Procedural Simulation of Causality in Physical Mechanisms 630  
        Abstract: 630  
        1. Introduction 630  
        2. Motivation 630  
        3. Background and Related Work 630  
        4. Theoretical Framework 630  
        5. Simulation Strategy 632  
        6. The Mechanisms Simulator 633  
        7. Simulation Philosophy 634  
        8. Conclusions 635  
        Acknowledgments 635  
        References 635  
     Chapter 9.2 The Origin and Resolution of Ambiguities in Causal Arguments 637  
        Abstract 637  
        Introduction 637  
        Theory 638  
        Generating Causal Arguments 639  
        Device Models for Electronics 639  
        Ambiguities and Assumptions 641  
        The Role of Teleology 642  
        Conclusions 642  
        Acknowledgements 643  
        References 643  
     Chapter 9.3 Causality in Device Behavior 644  
        1. Introduction 644  
        2. Causal Ordering 647  
        3. Mythical Causality 649  
        4. Comparison of the Two Concepts of Causality 651  
        5. Systems with Feedback 654  
        6. Conclusion 657  
        Appendix A. Derived Structures of Higher Orders, for the Evaporator Model 658  
        A.2. Derived structure of the second order 658  
        A.3. Derived structure of the third order 658  
        ACKNOWLEDGMENT 658  
        REFERENCES 658  
     Chapter 9.4 Theories of Causal Ordering 659  
        1. Introduction 659  
        2. Propagation of Constraints 661  
        3. Comparison of the Differing Approaches to Causality 664  
        4. Feedback in the Conduit 665  
        5. Comparative Statics 667  
        6. Ambiguity and Feedback 670  
        7. Conclusion 671  
        ACKNOWLEDGMENT 672  
        REFERENCES 673  
     Chapter 9.5 Theories of Causal Ordering: Reply to de Kleer and Brown 674  
        1. Introduction 674  
        2. Propagation of Constraints 675  
        3. Comparison of the Differing Approaches to Causality 676  
        4. Feedback in the Conduit 676  
        5. Comparative Statics 677  
        6. Ambiguity and Feedback 677  
        7. Conclusion 678  
        REFERENCES 678  
     Chapter 9.6 Causal Reasoning about Quantities 679  
        Abstract 679  
        1· Introduction 679  
        2. Models of causality in changing quantities 679  
        3. Psychological Implications 684  
        4· Conclusions 689  
        5. Acknowledgements 689  
        6. Bibliography 689  
  Bibliography 692  
  Author Index 706  
  Subject Index 710  
  Credits 732  


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