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From Methodology to Methods in Human Psychology
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From Methodology to Methods in Human Psychology
von: Jaan Valsiner
Springer-Verlag, 2017
ISBN: 9783319610641
120 Seiten, Download: 2617 KB
Format:  PDF
geeignet für: Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen PC, MAC, Laptop

Typ: B (paralleler Zugriff)


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  Preface 6  
  Contents 8  
  About the Author 11  
  Chapter 1: Methodology as Foundation for Discovery 12  
      The Goal: Search for Universal Principles 13  
         The “Blind Spots” in Psychological Epistemology 14  
         A Methodological Need: Preserving the Whole 16  
         Basic Axiomatics for Human Psychology 16  
         The Principle of Parsimony 18  
  Chapter 2: General Epistemology of Open Systems 20  
      Organisms Exist Only as Open Systems 21  
      Making Sense of Living Organisms Without Vitalist Assumptions 23  
      The Borrowed Concept—Equifinality 24  
      The Steady State (Fliessgleichgewicht) 24  
      General Idea of Development: Hierarchical Reorganization in Time 25  
      What Would Be Different in Open-System Methodology 27  
      The Meaning of Objectivity 29  
      The Meaning of “the Data” 30  
      Conclusion: What Is Needed for Methodology? 30  
  Chapter 3: Methodology in the New Key: The Methodology Cycle 31  
      The Role of Intuition in Science 38  
  Chapter 4: Frames of Reference 41  
      Summary: Psychology Has Been Using Inadequate Reference Frames 46  
         The Individual-Ecological Reference Frame 46  
         The Individual-Socioecological Reference Frame 47  
            Example: The SELF as an Open System (elaborating George Herbert Mead) 48  
         Conclusion: Needed—Consistency Between Basic Assumptions and Reference Frames 49  
  Chapter 5: The Role of Methods in the Methodology Cycle 50  
      Studying Personality: Relocating Focus from Responses to Responding Processes 50  
      Taking a Dynamic View on Seemingly Static Methods: What Is a “Personality Test” Item? 51  
      Conditional-Genetic Analysis 55  
      Methods of Re- and Pre-construction (Post-factum and Pre-factum) 57  
         How Do We Cover the Four Infinities? 57  
      Method Construction in Open-Systemic World: Exploring Relations Between Infinities 58  
         Externalizing the Flow of Thinking: “Thinking Aloud” and “Walking Along” 60  
         The Trajectory Equifinality Approach (TEA/TEM) 63  
         Conclusion: Methodology as Movement 66  
  Chapter 6: Introspection as the Basic Method in Psychological Science 67  
      Methods Capitalizing on Process Orientation 67  
      Introspection as a Method to Link Proactive and Retroactive Movements 69  
      Rating Scales: Trivialized Introspection 70  
      Conclusion: Why Is Introspection the Central Method for Psychology? 72  
  Chapter 7: Methods of Extrospection: Interview, Questionnaire, Experiment 73  
      Three Techniques in Extrospection: Interview, Questionnaire, Experiment 73  
         Intention to Enter into Research Relation: “Contacting Participants” 74  
         Interview as a Method: Coordinating Perspectives 75  
         Interview Delegated to Fixed Messages: A Questionnaire 76  
         Experiment as Guided Observation 77  
      Process-Focused Methods: Utilizing the Guidance of the Mind 82  
         Reconstructive Memory and Conversational Reconstruction Techniques 83  
      Directing the Extrospective Process: Story Completion Methods 85  
      Conclusion: From Outcome-Focused to Process-Analytic Methods 87  
  Chapter 8: Generalization from Single Instances 88  
      The Base: Generalization Through Abduction 89  
      Fictional Characters as Data 90  
      The Real Nature of Fictions 91  
  Chapter 9: General Conclusion: Research as Knowledge-­Constrained Semiosis 93  
      Scientific Knowledge as Strategically Constrained Semiosis 94  
         Research as Knowledge-Constrained and Knowledge-­Constraining Activity 95  
  References 96  
  Commentary 1 Throwing the Baby Out with the Bathwater: How Decontextualized Research Obscures the Very Phenomena They Aim to Study 102  
     An Example 102  
     The “Magic” of Measurement 104  
     Images of Reality 105  
     Dynamic Process Methodology 107  
     The Science of Single Cases 108  
     References 109  
  Commentary 2 Toward a Renewal of Methodology – The Contribution of Psychoanalysis 110  
     1 110  
     2 111  
     3 113  
     4 114  
     5 115  
     6 116  
     References 116  
  Index 118  

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