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Archaeomineralogy
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Archaeomineralogy
von: George Rapp
Springer-Verlag, 2009
ISBN: 9783540785941
336 Seiten, Download: 12542 KB
 
Format:  PDF
geeignet für: Apple iPad, Android Tablet PC's Online-Lesen PC, MAC, Laptop

Typ: B (paralleler Zugriff)

 

 
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Inhaltsverzeichnis

  Preface and Reader’s Guide 5  
  Preface to the Second Edition 7  
  Contents 9  
  List of Figures 13  
  Introduction and History 16  
     1.1 Prologue 16  
     1.2 Organization of the Book 17  
     1.3 The Ancient Authors 19  
     1.3.1 Classical Authors 21  
     1.3.2 Medieval Authors 25  
     1.3.3 Arab Authors 29  
     1.3.4 Chinese and Indian Authors 30  
  Properties of Minerals 32  
     2.1 Mineral Chemistry 32  
     2.2 Mineral Structure 32  
     2.3 Mineral Identification Methods 2.3.1 Element Analyses 36  
     2.3.2 Petrographic Analyses 38  
     2.3.3 Physical Methods of Identification 40  
     2.4 Color of Minerals 42  
  Exploitation of Mineral and Rock Raw Materials 59  
     3.1 Introduction 59  
     3.2 Rock Classification and Properties 60  
     3.3 Igneous Rocks 60  
     3.3.1 Extrusive Igneous Rocks 62  
     3.3.2 Intrusive Igneous Rocks 65  
     3.4 Sedimentary Rocks 67  
     3.4.1 Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks 69  
     3.4.2 Terrigenous Sedimentary Rocks 70  
     3.4.3 Pyroclastic Sedimentary Rocks 72  
     3.5 Metamorphic Rocks 72  
     3.6 Unconsolidated Deposits 3.6.1 Surface Deposits 76  
     3.6.2 Placer Deposits 77  
     3.6.3 Residual Deposits 78  
     3.7 Outcrops, Mining, and Quarrying 79  
  Lithic Materials 83  
     4.1 Introduction 83  
     4.2 Microcrystalline Quartz 90  
     4.3 Other Siliceous Rocks 96  
     4.3.1 Quartzite 96  
     4.3.2 Opal 97  
     4.3.3 Felsite 98  
     4.3.4 Rhyolite/Andesite 98  
     4.3.5 Siliceous Shale/Slate/Schist 98  
     4.4 Obsidian 99  
     4.5 Other Minerals and Rocks 102  
  Gemstones, Seal Stones, and Ceremonial Stones 105  
     5.1 Introduction 105  
     5.2 Quartz Minerals (SiO 108  
     ) 108  
     5.2.1 Crystalline Varieties 108  
     5.2.2 Cryptocrystalline Varieties 110  
     5.3 Non-Quartz Silicates and Minerals 5.3.1 Coarse- Grained 114  
     5.3.2 Fine-Grained 120  
     5.3.3 Glassy 125  
     5.4 Carbonate and Sulfate Minerals 5.4.1 Coarse- Grained 125  
     5.4.2 Fine-Grained 126  
     5.5 Oxide Minerals 127  
     5.6 Organic Gems 130  
     5.7 Other Gem Minerals 133  
     5.7.1 Sulfide Minerals 134  
  Soft Stones and Other Carvable Materials 135  
     6.1 Introduction 135  
     6.2 Serpentinite 136  
     6.3 Steatite and Soapstone 139  
     6.3.1 Asbestos 142  
     6.4 Alabaster and Gypsum 142  
     6.5 Limestone and Marble 146  
     6.6 Catlinite 149  
     6.7 Other Carved Stone 150  
     6.8 Sedimentary Rocks 151  
     6.9 Volcanic Rocks 154  
     6.10 Miscellaneous Rocks 155  
  Metals and Related Minerals and Ores 157  
     7.1 Introduction 157  
     7.2 Gold (Au) 160  
     7.3 Silver (Ag) 166  
     7.4 Native Copper (Cu) 168  
     7.5 Other Copper Minerals 172  
     7.5.1 The Copper Ore Minerals 178  
     7.6 Iron (Fe) 180  
     7.7 Iron Minerals 183  
     7.8 Tin (Sn) Minerals 185  
     7.9 Lead (Pb) Minerals 190  
     7.10 Zinc (Zn) Minerals 192  
     7.11 Other Ore Minerals and Metals 194  
     7.12 Oxidation of Metallic Ores 195  
  Ceramic Raw Materials 197  
     8.1 Introduction 197  
     8.2 Clays 198  
     8.3 Pottery 202  
     8.4 Tempers 203  
     8.5 Glazes 205  
     8.6 Porcelain 207  
     8.7 Glass 208  
     8.8 Faience 211  
     8.9 Fired-Brick, Tile, and Terracotta 212  
     8.10 Refractory Ceramics 214  
  Pigments and Colorants 215  
     9.1 The Nature of Pigments and Colorants 215  
     9.2 Historical Background 217  
     9.3 Iron Oxide Compounds 221  
     9.4 Manganese Compounds 226  
     9.5 Copper Compounds 226  
     9.6 Lead Compounds 227  
     9.7 Carbon Compounds 229  
     9.8 Sulfide Compounds 229  
     9.9 Carbonates 230  
     9.10 Silicates 231  
     9.11 Gold and Silver 234  
     9.12 Tin Compounds 234  
     9.13 Cobalt 235  
  Abrasives, Salt, Shells, and Miscellaneous Geologic Raw Materials 236  
     10.1 Introduction 236  
     10.2 Abrasives 236  
     10.3 Salt (Halite) 237  
     10.4 Natron 241  
     10.5 Alum 243  
     10.6 Shells, Coral, Fossils, and Fossil Bone 245  
     10.7 Other Geologic Raw Materials 10.7.1 Mica 251  
     10.7.2 Petroleum Products – Asphalt, Bitumen, and Pitch 252  
     10.7.3 Sulfur (S) 254  
     10.7.4 Mercury (Hg) 255  
     10.7.5 Saltpeter, Niter 256  
     10.7.6 Epsomite (MgSO 257  
     · 7H 257  
     O, Epsom Salt) 257  
     10.7.7 Nitric Acid 258  
     10.7.8 Tutty/Cadmea 258  
     10.7.9 Fuller’s Earth 258  
     10.7.10 Stone Money 258  
  Building, Monumental, and Statuary Materials 260  
     11.1 Introduction 260  
     11.2 Building Stone 260  
     11.2.1 Granite/Diorite 264  
     11.2.2 Porphyry 266  
     11.2.3 Basalt/Andesite/Dolerite 266  
     11.2.4 Limestone/Sandstone 268  
     11.2.5 Marble 270  
     11.2.6 Slate/Schist/Quartzite 272  
     11.2.7 Gypsum 273  
     11.3 Cements and Mortars 11.3.1 Lime 274  
     11.3.2 Gypsum 276  
     11.3.3 Aggregates 277  
     11.3.4 Hydraulic Reactions 278  
     11.3.5 Natural Pozzolana 279  
     11.3.6 Artificial ÏPozzolanaÓ 280  
     11.3.7 Modern Portland Cement 281  
     11.4 Masonry 281  
     11.5 Mud Brick, Terracotta, and Other Earthen Architectural Materials 282  
     11.6 Weathering and Decomposition 286  
  References 294  
     Additional Bibliography Chapter 1 328  
     Chapter 2 328  
     Chapter 3 328  
     Chapter 4 329  
     Chapter 5 329  
     Chapter 6 329  
     Chapter 7 329  
     Chapter 8 330  
     Chapter 9 330  
     Chapter 10 330  
     Chapter 11 331  
  Glossary 332  
  Pigments Used in Antiquity 339  
  Minerals, Rocks, and Metals Index 345  
  Geographic Index 351  
  General Index 357  


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